Pope’s New Cardinals Defy Expectations

Pope Francis’ choice of new cardinals announced on Sunday is consistent with his wish to take the Gospel to the peripheries, but it also went against some common expectations.
The 15 cardinal-designates, aged under 80 and therefore eligible to vote in a conclave to elect the next Pope, come from 14 countries, some of which have never had a cardinal before. The “most evident criteria” in the Pope’s nominations, said Vatican spokesman Father Federico Lombardi, is that of “universality.”
Notably, most of the new “red hats” who will join the College of Cardinals (effectively a papal “Senate”) at a consistory on February 14 come from the developing world, and largely places where the faith is growing fastest.
None of them was chosen from North America as some had been expecting. But this wasn’t entirely surprising, partly because the U.S. already has the second-largest number of voting cardinals and that number has been largely stable since the Pope last appointed his last batch of red hats last year.
Two new cardinals come from Italy, but not from expected major dioceses such as Turin or Venice. The Vatican said this is because the Pope “is not bound to the traditions” of automatically making cardinals prelates of certain dioceses.
Italy still has by far the largest number of cardinals (26 after the two named on Sunday) and will continue to be highly influential in any conclave held over the next few years. But Francis is ensuring that the overall influence of Western red hats is lessened as he increases geographical representation that more closely reflects the life of the universal church.
Also notable in the Pope’s announcement is that he’s making only one Vatican official — Archbishop Dominique Mamberti, who heads the Vatican’s highest court — a cardinal. The position is usually held by a cardinal, but Francis has, for the second consecutive consistory, omitted presidents of other Vatican departments, known as Pontifical Councils — again indicating a move away from traditional centers of power in favor of the periphery.
It’s usual in choosing cardinals, one of whom will become the next Pope, for a pontiff to select those most likely to continue their vision for the Church. Francis appears no different in this regard.
As expected, many of the new cardinals appear to share a similar, though not necessarily identical, reformist vision. For example, the only Anglophone nominee, Archbishop John Dew of Wellington, New Zealand, advocated allowing divorced and civilly remarried Catholics to receive Communion in 2005. During last year’s synod on the family, he also voiced his support for a change in language when ministering to homosexuals.
But contrary to other expectations, Francis chose not to name Archbishop Bruno Forte a cardinal. The Italian prelate, considered to be a rising star among reformers, is special secretary to the controversial Synod on the Family and close to Francis. The synod met in October and will meet again this coming October to discuss how the church can better deal with the crisis in the family today.
The Pope has also focused on Asia, a region of particular interest to him. In Vietnam, where the Holy See and Hanoi are seeking to establish full diplomatic relations, the Pope named Hanoi’s Archbishop Pierre Nguyen Van Nhon a cardinal. Again with diplomatic advances in mind, the Pope will also award a red hat to Archbishop Charles Maung Bo of Yangon, Burma.
In addition to the 15 new cardinals announced Sunday, the Pope also nominated five retired prelates as cardinals. Unexpectedly among them was Archbishop Luigi De Magistris, a former Vatican official and protégé of Cardinal Alfredo Ottaviani, the leading orthodox voice at the Second Vatican Council.
Although Pope for just under two years, on February 14 Pope Francis will have appointed a quarter of the voting cardinals eligible to vote in a conclave. Perhaps because of his advancing age, Francis is therefore putting his stamp on the church relatively quickly, ensuring that his reformist vision for the Catholic Church continues.

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Freedom of Conscience in the 21st Century


VATICAN CITY — Defending the right of conscience is one of the most pressing challenges in the world today, and action needs to be taken now to ensure it is protected.

This is according to Alan Sears, president, CEO and general counsel of Alliance Defending Freedom, a legal ministry for religious freedom based in the United States.

Speaking to the Register in Rome recently, Sears explained the totalitarianism behind the attacks on conscience rights, how tolerance for differing opinions has diminished and how he nevertheless detects a shift in public opinion toward affirming marriage.


What are the most pressing challenges you’re seeing at Alliance Defending Freedom?

Worldwide, the most pressing challenge is defending the right of conscience. In the United States, we’re seeing on many, many fronts, but most particularly relating to right to life and marriage, challenges relating to conscience. To speak of a few in the United States, one of those things relates to people in professional life, people involved in creative artistic services that are being targeted to provide those services in support of events and activities that violate their most basic consciences. That would include the photographers, the florists, the cake artists. … There’s a distinction between selling this and selling generic services.

We have a florist client in Washington state. She’s a great-grandmother. She knew and served this man who engages in homosexual behavior for 10 years, caring for him deeply. But when he came to her and said: “I want you to design my wedding, and I want you to do all the floral work,” she prayed; she sought counsel. Unlike people who feel their conscience is just a matter of how they feel in the morning when they get out of bed, she said: “I can’t violate my conscience — I don’t have the right to violate the teaching and understanding of marriage.” She lovingly explained this to the client, saying she’d sell him any flowers he wanted generically, but she could not participate in the creative artistry necessary to acknowledge an attempt to redefine marriage. And this is consistent across the board with these clients, who, in some cases, are clearly being targeted.


How much of the problem is due to those who support and promote homosexual rights and are desperately seeking validity by eliminating any kind of opposition?

One of the things we see all the time is an attempt to silence any opposition. Anyone who upholds traditional understandings of marriage, of sexual fidelity, of the complementarity of man and woman [is opposed in society]. Clearly, there are those who would like to outlaw this, and this is not by any means an exaggeration. There are those who would like to outlaw those who preach from their pulpits that homosexuality is a sin.

I wrote a book some years ago called The Homosexual Agenda. The subtitle was “Principle Threat to Religious Freedom in America Today.” This was only relating to activity in the United States at the time, but, now, we’ve moved into this campaign, [to] limit speech and to cause consequences to those who dissent from the demands of this agenda.


Would you say that this underlying sense, that this is wrong, is fueling this agenda?

I’m not going to suggest that everyone who engages in homosexual behavior is a totalitarian, but there are those who are advocating that movement who have absolute totalitarian instincts. They want punishment for those who will not support and agree with their view. After this story is published in the Register, there’ll be more fire directed at me and Alliance Defending Freedom. Every time that our organization successfully represents someone, more fire is poured out: Twitter campaigns, Facebook attacks — all these kind of things, which clearly indicate people are interested in having an open market of ideas and open discussion, but they want to punish, silence and stigmatize all of those who disagree. … I use a phrase: The pretense of tolerance is over.

For years, there was a demand that we have tolerance, but, now, it’s completely flipped: that we will not tolerate anyone with whom we disagree. … We see, in case after case, the real-life experience where those who are saying, “We have to be open to ideas” actually want to punish ideas that don’t agree with theirs.


Do you, in any case, see a shift in public opinion towards an improvement in this debate?

Actually, it’s interesting: Courts have begun to make this incredible shift [towards affirming marriage]. Every state where people have had a chance to make a decision, they’ve said: “We want to protect marriage.” The interesting thing, which many people don’t realize, is that the Republican Party came into being to protect marriage. When the Republican Party was formed, the platform was to abolish the last two relics of barbarism: polygamy and slavery. And when Lincoln became president, these were hot issues. With the Civil War coming along, the marriage issue got put by the wayside, but Lincoln actually opposed Utah becoming a state because he was concerned about the possibility that polygamy could spread. When the state of Arizona came into the United States, it prohibited polygamy forever. As a condition for becoming a state, Congress required that it prohibit this ever being revisited.

So this isn’t like a new problem, and the polygamy fight was fought over a period of about 40 years before it was finally resolved. So if you use the analogy, we’re at the early stages of a legal fight.


How can Catholics do more to step up to the plate and defend conscience rights?

There is so much that Catholics can do. One of the most inspiring talks at the Humanum colloquium [held in Rome in November on the complementarity of man and woman in marriage] was given by Pastor Rick Warren of Saddleback Church in California. He reported that he has just baptized his 41,000th adult convert. Wow. But he gave that number as an explanation that so many people are confused. They think that one needs to back away from doctrine and theology in order to be popular and grow churches, and he made the point that churches that back away from doctrine and theology seem to disappear.

In his faith tradition, he has tried to stay pure and faithful to his doctrine and theology, and he’s now baptized his 41,000th convert. The point of this is that he says: “Stay faithful; don’t back down.” And he gave a delightful talk including six ways every church can celebrate marriage.

I was blessed to be at the [weekly general] audience yesterday; and after the Holy Father did his beautiful visits that he does every time with those with physical limitations, with disabilities and those in wheelchairs — which is such a visible witness — then he goes back to the top and greets the married couples, women in their wedding dresses, young men in their best suits, tuxedos; and this is a sermon. It’s one of the things Rick Warren said: The Church should celebrate marriage; [show] the joy, the beauty of God’s plan for marriage. There are so many of us.

I love what the Holy Father said: that the Church is like a field hospital. There are so many of us who have seen in our lives those things that are not the ideal. We’ve experienced pain, brokenness, but none of us want less than the best. So one of the most exciting things that every local parish can do, every priest, every bishop can do, is lift up the idea and help those who aspire to the ideal to find it. This doesn’t mean we in any way disparage those who are caught up in circumstances less than the best and those who’ve experienced the pain of divorce, death or separation. But why not hold up the best? What do we want for our children? We want the very best schools. We want the very best opportunities. Why not that for their life? And marriage is the single best item for success and health that there is.


What are your hopes, looking to the future?

We’re at a crossroads. When we look back at history, we see turning points in every culture, every society, and we’re at a turning point on several of these issues. As I say, the foremost issue is right of conscience, but on marriage as well. It really is up to people of faith, if we are going to stand for our faith or step aside and allow our faith to be suppressed and undermined by law, to be made less than fully invested citizens.

I’ve read, studied and often thought about the late Dr. Martin Luther King and the letter he wrote from Birmingham jail. There was a question within the civil-rights movement of the United States. The question was: When do we stand? When do we sit back? Is this a time to wait, wait politely in silence? Or is this a time to act?

And Dr. King recognized that some injustice is so grave that there is no time to waste. This is where the Judeo-Christian community — we have many friends and brothers and sisters outside our own faith tradition — faces great persecution if this is allowed to continue. So this is the time for people to stand united, one with another. And when they hear about things like the Mozilla CEO, when they hear about the florist, photographer, the cake baker, the bed-and-breakfast person [being denied conscience rights], this is the time people should rally.

I said when this cake incident happened: Everyone should go and buy everything this guy can make and sell; make him rich, in a show of solidarity. It would be a very simple act, but so often, we sit back. I won’t predict the future, but it’s in the hands of every single believer; and we will make the choice of what the future will be for our children by what we do now. As Dr. King said: There’s no time to waste.

Edward Pentin is the Register’s Rome correspondent.

Read more: http://www.ncregister.com/daily-news/freedom-of-conscience-in-the-21st-century#ixzz3Ot0u72ic

Additional Challenges Await Pope Francis in 2015

The coming year will be considerably more challenging for Pope Francis than the one just passed. A new encyclical in the spring, a visit to the United States in the fall, and a controversial synod on the family October are just some of the expected highlights.In September, the Bishop of Rome will travel to Philadelphia to take part in the 8th World Meeting of Families, which will be held Sept. 22-27. It will be Jorge Bergoglio’s first ever visit to the U.S.

The program has yet to be published, but the Pontiff is expected to celebrate a large open-air Mass in the city. He is also scheduled to travel to New York to address the United Nations and probably visit Washington D.C., during which he is expected to accept a very rare invitation to address a joint session of Congress.

One of Pope Francis’ first major engagements of 2015 will be to hold a consistory of new cardinals Feb. 14-15. At least 10 new prelates are likely to be elevated to the College of Cardinals, within the quota of 120 voting cardinals under the age of 80. Cardinal-making consistories are significant as they offer a pope the chance to ensure his successor is of similar mind — and in the case of Pope Francis — likely to continue his program for reform.

American Archbishops Charles Chaput of Philadelphia, José Gomez of Los Angeles, and Blasé Cupich of Chicago are considered candidates for a red hat, although their predecessors are still under 80 and so able to vote in a conclave — which may mean they are passed over this time around.

February will be a busy month for Francis and will include a meeting of the Council of Cardinals — the so-called C9 — for reform of the Roman Curia Feb. 9-11. Major reforms, including a new constitution for the Curia, may be announced later in the year.

The Pope’s first visit outside Italy in 2015 will be to Sri Lanka and the Philippines, Jan. 12-19. The former will be somewhat perilous, coming shortly after presidential elections in the country. Many Sri Lankans are urging the Pope to postpone the visit to avoid it being exploited for political purposes, especially by the ruling party desperate to cling to power.

On Jan. 16, the Pope will arrive in Manila for a four-day visit where he is expected to draw record crowds, exceeding the 5 million who came to see St. John Paul II in 1995.

The Pope has said he will also visit three Latin American countries in 2015. Bolivia, Chile and Cuba are possible destinations — but not Argentina due to elections there. Francis has also said he plans to include a trip to Africa next year, possibly Uganda.

Within Italy, the Pope’s pastoral visits will include a trip to Turin June 21, where he will venerate the Holy Shroud. The famous relic, which increasing numbers believe to be the shroud placed around Jesus after his crucifixion, is being displayed in Turin cathedral from April 19 to June 24.

The Pope’s new encyclical, on human ecology, will be published sometime between February and April. The document, addressed to Catholics worldwide, will be Francis’ first. He published one on faith last year but it was largely the work of Benedict XVI. This one is expected to link environmental concerns with crises in the family, and sources say it is expected to make up a significant part of Francis’ speech to the UN in September.

Arguably the greatest challenge for the Pope this coming year will be calming and reassuring a flock perturbed by the upcoming synod. The 14th Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops on the family will take place Oct. 4-25 and follows a controversial extraordinary synod in October this year.

The chances of unsightly public confrontations remain high as figures intent on usurping Church doctrine on key hot-button issues push their agenda. The meeting may, however, signal their last hurrah as awareness grows of such attempts, resulting in a possible push-back.

The synod will conclude with an apostolic exhortation, a final summary document, by Pope Francis, although that is not expected to appear until 2016.

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Pope: Religious Fundamentalism ‘Denial of God’


In the face of the attacks in Paris last week and the continuing menace of ISIS, Pope Francis has warned that religious fundamentalism is part of a “throwaway culture” that, in eliminating God, leads to “horrendous” violence and death.

During his annual “state of the world” address to diplomats accredited to the Holy See Jan. 12th, the pontiff said the spread of fundamentalist terrorism “is a consequence of the throwaway culture being applied to God.”

“Religious fundamentalism, even before it eliminates human beings by perpetrating horrendous killings, eliminates God himself, turning him into a mere ideological pretext,” he warned. Francis also made a point of calling on all Muslims to condemn extremist violence.

The notion that rejecting God leads to violence is a continuation of a central theme of Benedict XVI’s pontificate. Speaking in Assisi in 2011, the Pope emeritus said “the denial of God has led to much cruelty and to a degree of violence that knows no bounds.” His famous 2006 Regensburg lecture also warned of a clash between Islamic fundamentalism and a West dominated by positivist thinking, both of which ultimately reject God.

The “throwaway culture” is a constant theme of Francis which he believes, together with a “culture of enslavement”, is leading to a “never-ending spread of conflicts.” Such a culture “spares no one: nature, human beings, even God himself,” Francis continued, adding that it’s giving rise to a world “constantly torn by tensions and conflicts of every sort.”

Every conflict and war, he said, “is emblematic of a throwaway culture, since people’s lives are deliberately crushed by those in power.”

And, he reiterated his belief that the world is experiencing a “true world war fought piecemeal” which is affecting different areas of the world with varying “degrees of intensity”.

Francis went on to touch on almost every trouble spot in the world during his long 3,500 word address, including further Islamist violence in Nigeria, conflict in the Holy Land where he argued a “two-state solution” is required; terrorism in Syria and Iraq which demands a “unanimous response”; and threats against Christians in the Middle East, without whom the region would be “marred and mutilated.”

He further warned of the plight of migrants, those caught up in human trafficking, women who are victims of violence, and that the family is often “considered disposable”, thanks to the spread of an “individualistic and self-centered culture.”

More controversially, he expressed appreciation to the Obama administration for wishing to close Guantanamo, and said he looked forward to the drafting a new climate change agreement which he described as a “significant process.” The Pope is to publish a new encyclical before the summer which is rumored to give credence to climate change, despite many who continue to be skeptical of the science.

His speech on Monday was generally well received, however. It was “powerful and substantial,” Britain’s ambassador to the Holy See, Nigel Baker, told me. “It repeated many well known ‘Franciscan’ themes, but developed them around the central theme of conflict in a coherent and challenging way. Impressive stuff.”

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